Security is a very important topic in the digital world. It is crucial for any organization to have secure networks. I will be discussing some of the most common questions used to interview candidates for network security positions.
- What kind of information is stored on a network? What happens if that information gets compromised?
- What are some of the most common ways to secure a network?
- How can an organization keep its networks up-to-date with the latest patches and updates?
- Why are passwords so important in securing your network?
Below are some of the most common Network Security Interview Questions:
1. What is Network Security?
Ans. Network security is the process of defending a computer network from data-based attacks. It has become increasingly important as more companies conduct business on the internet.
Network security can be categorized into four different areas: attack prevention, attack detection, attack response, and building resilience.
These include firewalls, intrusion detection systems, data encryption, operating system updates and patches, antivirus programs, and web browsers.
2. Explain the main objectives of Network Security?
Ans. Network security is the practice of controlling access to and use of computer networks so as to protect the network from damage or unauthorized use.
The major objective of network security is preventing unauthorized access, monitoring authorized access, and repairing any damage caused by unauthorized access.
3. What is a Firewall?
Ans. It refers to a security system that protects your network from malicious data and programs from the internet. It’s like a gatekeeper of your information.
4. Explain Cross-Site request forgery?
Ans. Cross-Site Request Forgery is a code injection attack on web applications. The attacker tricks the victim’s browser into sending an HTTP request to a vulnerable web application that includes both the victim’s session cookie and the attacker’s malicious script, thus gaining the same rights as the victim on that application.
5. What is Routing Information Protocol?
Ans. The Routing Information Protocol is a routing protocol used on the internet. It is responsible for delivering messages from sender to receiver and this routing process is determined by the network’s topology.
6. Explain the difference between hub and switch?
Ans. Hubs can be thought of as the central directory or connection point for a network. Hubs typically send data packets in one direction to all connected devices. This means that hubs are unable to handle high traffic flow and provide limited bandwidth.
Switch, on the other hand, is an intelligent device that forwards data packets from one port to another based on the destination address contained within the packet. A switch is capable of handling a much higher amount of traffic flow and usually provides greater bandwidth than hubs.
The difference between hub and switch can be thought of as being comparable to that between a post office and an airport. The post office is like a hub where mail goes through in just one direction while flights have multiple destinations.
7. What is Malware?
Ans. Malware is a type of software that is designed to damage or interfere with the normal operation of computer systems, for example by stealing information like credit card numbers or passwords.
8. How does SQL Injection work?
Ans. SQL injection is a common way for hackers to break into databases.
The malicious user injects their own SQL code into the legitimate query, such as “SELECT * FROM table WHERE id = ‘1’” and then executes it against the database. This might sound like a simple SQL injection, but it’s actually much more complicated than that.
A successful SQL injection can lead to data theft and tampering, as well as system access.
9. Explain about Intrusion Prevention System?
Ans. An Intrusion Prevention System is a system that monitors and prevents unauthorized access from the Internet or other untrusted sources.
Intrusion Prevention Systems are used to monitor network traffic and block suspicious activity. They have features that can detect, prevent, and report intrusions and attacks on the network such as malware infections, denial of service attacks, etc.
Intrusion Prevention Systems use a number of different methods to detect intruders depending on what they are looking for. Based on these methods, there are three types: Network-based Intrusion Detection Systems (NIDS), Host-based Intrusion Prevention Systems (HIPS), and Application-based Intrusion Protection Systems (AIPs).
10. What is a DDoS attack?
Ans. When hackers target a network with an “attack,” it’s called a Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack. It’s the result of too many messages sent to the server in a short period of time, which causes it to crash.
11. What is Zero-Day Exploit.
Ans. Some of the most well-known exploits are the ones that happen on a zero-day basis. This means they are undetectable by any anti-virus, firewall, IDS, or IPS – making them very dangerous.
There are several types of zero-day exploits. The ones that most people are aware of come from emails with malicious attachments that exploit unpatched applications. These kinds of exploits can be avoided by following a few simple rules.
Most vendors have now developed solutions to detect and prevent zero-day attacks before they happen, such as performing regular updates for all software on your computer, using strong passwords, and making sure to use two-factor authentication when possible.
12. What is Adware?
Ans. Adware is a type of malicious software that can display unwanted ads on a user’s computer. This type of malware is often installed by the user unknowingly and in some cases, when the user visits specific websites or clicks on certain ads.
Adware can be classified into two categories – Potentially Unwanted Programs (PUPs) and Spyware. There are also other types of adware like Browser Hijackers, Keyloggers, and Rootkits. It is important to remove Adware from your system because it will keep displaying ads automatically even if you delete them or close the browser window they are displayed in.
13. What is shadow it?
Ans. Shadow IT is a term used to describe the IT resources that employees work with, but organizations may not have approved.
Shadow IT was once a term used to describe employees that use their own devices, such as personal computers or smartphones, for doing work-related tasks. Nowadays it is a term used to refer to the use of any type of technology that an organization does not have complete control over.
14. What is a VPN?
Ans. A virtual private network is a network that is created over the internet. Establishing this network protects the information in transit from being intercepted by third parties like hackers, governments, and ISPs. VPNs are now used for many different purposes, including securing personal data and browsing anonymously.
15. What is Phishing and how is it executed?
Ans. Phishing is a criminal activity that is done online for the purposes of stealing personal and financial information. It can be done through links or attachments.
The phishing scam usually starts with a spam email that directs the victim to a website where they are asked to log in or enter their credit card information. If you are unsure whether the website is legit, do not enter any information. Legitimate businesses will never ask you to enter your credit card number via email.
16. What is Ransomware?
Ans. Ransomware is a type of malware that infects a computer and restricts access to it until a ransom is paid.
Ransomware can be seen as a form of cyber-extortion, this is because the ransomware has taken control of their data and demands payment for its release. Growing in popularity, it has become one of the most used forms of malware. In order for companies to protect themselves from ransomware, they must have good backup systems in place.
17. What are the different types of Firewalls?
Ans. There are two types of firewalls:
Packet Filtering Firewall: The first type of firewall screens and filters packets based on “source address, a destination address, source port number, destination port number, protocol number,” or some combination thereof. This type of firewall doesn’t have any intelligence so it does not know how to identify malicious packets but it can block or filter packets that are not wanted by an administrator.
Application Layer Firewall: The second type of firewall has intelligence and monitors network activity at the application layer level. An administrator can specify which applications should be allowed and which should be accessed.
18. What is ISMS?
Ans. The full form for ISMS is ‘Information Security Management System’. This system is used to protect sensitive data from being compromised, manipulated or lost. It also guarantees that the information will not be distributed to unauthorized individuals.
19. What is NAC?
Ans. Network Access Control (NAC) is a system that controls what devices are allowed to connect to the network. This system allows only those devices that comply with the security requirements established by the NAC system to have access to the network.
20. What the different types of DDOS Attacks?
Ans. Types of DDoS attacks are classified into three categories: bandwidth, application, and infrastructure.
In a bandwidth attack, the attacker uses bots to send massive amounts of data to the target host. This is done by sending garbage requests and requests for content that does not exist. The response is then sent back to the sender which causes a flood of packets preventing any legitimate traffic from reaching the host.
In an application-layer attack, the attacker targets service-specific protocols such as DNS or NTP with request packets that force responses from target servers. This can lead to server overload and slow network connections due to increased traffic flow.
Infrastructure attacks destroy the processing capacity of the network resources like firewalls, servers, and load balancers with malicious requests.